dOFM Publications


Sampling the dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) allows the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dermatological drugs to be studied directly at their site of action.

Dermal open-flow microperfusion (dOFM) is a recently developed technique that can provide minimally invasive, continuous, membrane-free (thus unfiltered) access to the dermal ISF. Herein, we evaluate the clinical applicability and reliability of novel wearable dOFM devices in a clinical setting.


Physicians inserted 141 membrane-free dOFM probes into the dermis of 17 healthy and psoriatic volunteers and sampled dermal ISF for 25 h by using wearable push-pull pumps. The tolerability, applicability, reproducibility, and reliability of multiple insertions and 25 h continuous sampling was assessed by pain scoring, physician feedback, ultrasound probe depth measurements, and 25 h-drift and variability of the sodium relative recovery.


Insertion pain was moderate and decreased with each additional probe. Probe insertion was precise, although slightly deeper in lesional skin. The wearable push-pull pump enabled uninterrupted ISF sampling over 25 h with low variability. The relative recovery was drift-free and highly reproducible.


dOFM sampling devices are tolerable and reliable for prolonged continuous dermal sampling in a multiprobe clinical setting. These devices should enable the study of a wide range of drugs and their biomarkers in the skin.


To evaluate the kinetics of topically applied clobetasol-17-propionate (CP-17) in lesional and non-lesional psoriatic skin when released from a commercially available low-strength cream using in vivo dermal open-flow microperfusion (dOFM).


Twelve patients received Dermovate® cream (CP-17, 0.05%) on small lesional and non-lesional skin test sites for 14 days, once daily. On day 1 and 14, dOFM samples were continuously taken in the dermis for 24 h post-dose and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Probe depths were assessed by 50 MHz ultrasound scanning.


Mixed-effects modelling identified skin condition, treatment duration and probe-depth as kinetics determining variables. The time- and depth-resolved intradermal data revealed (i) slower penetration of CP-17 into lesional than into non-lesional skin, (ii) normalized (faster) skin penetration after repeated dosing, and (iii) no CP-17 accumulation within the dermis independently of the skin condition.


Intradermal investigation of a highly lipophilic drug released from low-strength cream was successfully performed by using dOFM and timely and spatially, i.e., probe-depth dependent, resolved kinetic data were delivered. These data support the assumption that the thickened psoriatic stratum corneum might act as trap compartment which lowers the skin penetration rate for lipophilic topical drugs.




No abstract available


DOI: 10.1111/exd.12863


Objective: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of topically applied drugs are commonly performed by sampling of interstitial fluid with dermal open flow microperfusion and subsequent analysis of the samples. However, the reliability of results from the measured concentration-time profile of the penetrating drug suffers from highly variable skin permeability to topically applied drugs that is mainly caused by inter- and intra-subject variations of the stratum corneum. Thus, statistically significant results can only be achieved by performing high numbers of experiments. To reduce the expenditures needed for such high experiment numbers we aimed to assess the correlation between skin permeability and skin impedance/skin admittance.

Approach: We performed an ex vivo drug penetration study with human skin, based on the hypothesis that inter-subject variations of the respective concentration-time profiles can be correlated with variations of the passive electrical properties of the skin. Therefore, skin impedance and skin admittance were related to the skin permeability to the model drug Clobetasol-17-proprionate.

Main results: The measured low frequency skin impedance and the skin admittance correlated linearly with the drug concentration-time profiles from dermal sampling.

Significance: Skin permeability can be assessed by measuring the passive electrical properties of the skin, which enables correction of skin permeability variations. This allows reduction of experiment numbers in future pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies with human skin ex vivo and in vivo and leads to diminished study costs.

DOI: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa904e


Background: The availability of generic topical dermatological drug products is constrained by the limited methods established to assess topical bioequivalence (BE). A novel cutaneous pharmacokinetic approach, dermal open-flow microperfusion (dOFM), can continuously assess the rate and extent to which a topical drug becomes available in the dermis, to compare in vivo dermal bioavailability (BA) and support BE evaluations for topical products.

Objective: To evaluate whether dOFM is an accurate, sensitive, and reproducible in vivo method to characterize the intradermal BA of acyclovir from 5 % acyclovir creams, comparing a reference (R) product either to itself or to a different test (T) product.

Methods: In a single-center clinical study, R or T products were applied to six randomized treatment sites on the skin of 20 healthy human subjects. Two dOFM probes were inserted in each treatment site to monitor the intradermal acyclovir concentration for 36 h. Comparative BA (of R vs. R and T vs. R) was evaluated based on conventional BE criteria for pharmacokinetic endpoints (area under the curve and maximum dermal concentration) where the 90 % confidence interval of the geometric mean ratio between the T and R falls within 0.80-1.25.

Results: The positive control products (R vs. R) were accurately and reproducibly confirmed to be bioequivalent, while the negative control products (T vs. R) were sensitively discriminated not to be bioequivalent.

Conclusions: dOFM accurately, sensitively, and reproducibly characterized the dermal BA in a manner that can support BE evaluations for topical acyclovir 5 % creams in a study with n = 40 (20 subjects in this study).

DOI: 10.1007/s40262-016-0442-z


Background: IL-17A is a key driver of human autoimmune diseases, particularly psoriasis.

Objective: We sought to determine the role of IL-17A in psoriasis pathogenesis and to identify a robust and measurable biomarker of IL-17A-driven pathology.

Methods: We studied 8 healthy subjects and 8 patients with psoriasis before and after administration of secukinumab, a fully human anti-IL-17A mAb, and used a combination of classical techniques and a novel skin microperfusion assay to evaluate the expression of 170 proteins in blood, nonlesional skin, and lesional skin. For validation, we also tested stored sera from 601 patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases.

Results: IL-17A was specifically expressed in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin (9.8 vs 0.8 pg/mL, P < .001). Proteomic and gene transcription analyses revealed dysregulated antimicrobial peptides, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil chemoattractants, levels of which returned to normal after treatment with secukinumab. β-Defensin 2 (BD-2) was identified as a biomarker of IL-17A-driven pathology by comparing protein expression in patients with psoriasis versus that in healthy subjects (5746 vs 82 pg/mL in serum, P < .0001; 2747 vs <218 pg/mL in dermis, P < .001), responsiveness to secukinumab therapy, and synergistic induction by IL-17A and TNF-α in epidermal keratinocytes. In a validation set of sera from 601 patients with autoimmune diseases thought to be IL-17A driven, we found that BD-2 levels are most highly increased in patients with psoriatic skin lesions, and in patients with psoriasis, BD-2 levels correlated well with IL-17A levels (r = 0.70, n = 199, P < .001) and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores (r = 0.53, n = 281, P < .001).

Conclusion: IL-17A is a primary driver of skin pathology in patients with psoriasis, and serum BD-2 is an easily measurable biomarker of IL-17A-driven skin pathology.


DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.06.038


Time-concentration curves for the topical anti-viral drug acyclovir can provide valuable information for drug development. Open flow microperfusion is used for continuous sampling of dermal interstitial fluid but it requires validated methods for subsequent sample analysis. Therefore, we developed a sensitive, selective and high-throughput ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method to determine acyclovir in human dermal interstitial fluid and serum. We validated the method over a concentration range of 0.1-25 ng/mL for a sample volume of just 20 μL and employed cation-exchange solid-phase extraction in a fully automated sample treatment procedure. Short- and long-term sample stability data and the analysis of 5000 samples from a clinical trial demonstrate the successful application of our method.


DOI: 10.1002/bmc.4194



The rate of release of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from a topical semisolid dosage form can be influenced by its physical and structural properties. An In Vitro Release Test (IVRT) is an established method to characterize this rate of API release and compare the underlying sameness in product quality characteristics. The purpose of this work was to validate an IVRT method to compare acyclovir cream, 5% products. However, despite widespread use of the IVRT since 1997, there has been no established approach to validate an IVRT method. Our approach included: 1) qualification of the diffusion cell apparatus, 2) qualification of the laboratory, 3) validation of the HPLC analytical method, and 4) validation of numerous critical parameters of the IVRT method, itself, and resulted in a comprehensive and successful IVRT method validation. Subsequent to the IVRT validation work described here, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drafted a guidance on the development and validation of an IVRT method for acyclovir cream, 5%. Although there are notable differences between our approach and the approach in that guidance, this report illustrates how many of the same essential qualification parameters and validation concepts were considered and systematically addressed in our approach to IVRT validation.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.09.049


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their miRNA cargo are intercellular communicators transmitting their pleiotropic messages between different cell types, tissues, and body fluids. Recently, they have been reported to contribute to skin homeostasis and were identified as members of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of human dermal fibroblasts. However, the role of EV-miRNAs in paracrine signaling during skin aging is yet unclear. Here we provide evidence for the existence of small EVs in the human skin and dermal interstitial fluid using dermal open flow microperfusion and show that EVs and miRNAs are transferred from dermal fibroblasts to epidermal keratinocytes in 2D cell culture and in human skin equivalents. We further show that the transient presence of senescent fibroblast derived small EVs accelerates scratch closure of epidermal keratinocytes, whereas long-term incubation impairs keratinocyte differentiation in vitro. Finally, we identify vesicular miR-23a-3p, highly secreted by senescent fibroblasts, as one contributor of the EV-mediated effect on keratinocytes in in vitro wound healing assays. To summarize, our findings support the current view that EVs and their miRNA cargo are members of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype and, thus, regulators of human skin homeostasis during aging.


DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.05.015


cOFM Publications

Background: Assessment of drug concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is crucial for development of brain active drugs, which are mainly small, lipophilic substances able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We aimed to compare the applicability of cerebral Open Flow Microperfusion (cOFM) and Microdialysis (MD) to sample the lipophilic substance amitriptyline (AMI), its metabolites Hydroxyamitriptyline (HYA), Nortriptyline (NOR), Amitriptyline-N-Oxide (ANO), deuterated water (D2O) and the hydrophilic substance sodium fluorescein (Naf) in brain ISF. NEW METHOD: cOFM has been refined to yield increased spatial resolution and performance.

Comparison of cofm and md and results: Performance of cOFM and MD was assessed by in vivo AUC ratios of probe samples (AUCCOFM/AUCMD) and the in vivo relative recovery of D2O (RRvv,D2O). Adsorption of AMI and Naf to MD and cOFM was assessed by the in vitro relative recovery (RRvt) prior to the in vivo experiments. The in vivo AUC ratio of AMI and RRvv,D2O was about two times higher for cOFM than for MD (AUCOFM/AUCMD = 2.0, RRvv,D2O(cOFM)/RRvv,D2O(MD) = 2.1). cOFM detected all investigated AMI metabolites except NOR. MD did not detect HYA, NOR, ANO and Naf. In vitro adsorption of AMI and Naf to the MD membrane was strong (RRvt,AMI = 4.4%, RRvt,Naf = 1.5%) but unspecific adsorption to cOFM was negligibly small (RRvt,AMI = 98% and RRvt,Naf = 98%).

Conclusions: cOFM showed better performance when sampling AMI and its metabolites, Naf and D2O, and had an about two times higher RRvv,D2O than MD. MD did not detect HYA, NOR, ANO and Naf, most likely due to membrane adsorption.

Keywords: Blood brain barrier; Brain active drugs; Brain interstitial fluid; Cerebral open flow microperfusion; Microdialysis; Small lipophilic substances; cOFM.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2018.09.024




  1. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) limits substance transport to the brain and is therefore the major hurdle to overcome when developing neuroactive drugs. Herein, we report on cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM) as a new membrane-free technique for measuring substance transport across the intact BBB.
  2. The cOFM technique is based on a probe that is inserted into the brain, rupturing the BBB. The BBB is re-established within 15 days, which then allows sampling of interstitial brain fluid under physiological conditions. The aims of the present proof-of-concept study were to: (i) determine the time between cOFM probe insertion and BBB re-establishment; and (ii) demonstrate the ability of cOFM to sample the interstitial cerebral fluid with an intact BBB.
  3. The cOFM probe was inserted into the frontal lobe of Sprague–Dawley rats, resulting in BBB rupture. Re-establishment of the BBB was determined using Evans blue (EB) dye, which is an established marker for BBB intactness because it does not cross the intact BBB. Evaluating EB levels in the brain tissue indicated that the BBB was healed 11 days after probe insertion.
  4. To demonstrate transport across the healed BBB, we used sodium fluorescein (Naf), a sensitive, low molecular weight marker that can cross the intact BBB and can be used to monitor changes in BBB permeability. Significantly increased Naf levels were found in the interstitial fluid when hyperosmolar mannitol (known to open the BBB) was introduced via cOFM, which indicated partial opening of the BBB surrounding the cOFM probe.
  5. In conclusion, we show herein that cOFM allows monitoring of BBB permeability, which should be useful for measuring pharmacokinetics across the BBB and pharmacodynamics in the brain.




The neuroprotective blood-brain barrier (BBB) keeps many drug candidates below therapeutic levels in the central nervous system. Glutathione PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (2B3-101) has been developed to safely enhance the delivery of doxorubicin to brain tumors. However, doxorubicin concentration in extracellular brain fluid cannot yet be reliably measured using conventional techniques. Cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM), a recently developed sampling technique, allows monitoring of drug concentrations in the brain independent of molecular weight and lipophilicity. In combination with cOFM sampling, sodium fluorescein (NaF) is used as a marker for BBB integrity. Rats received one intravenous dose of 7 mg/kg of either 2B3-101 or PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (generic Caelyx(®)). Blood and cOFM sampling was performed for 5 h after dose injection. NaF concentration in the brain was monitored and remained low indicating an intact BBB. The brain-to-blood ratio of doxorubicin was 4.8-fold higher after administration of 2B3-101 as compared with generic Caelyx(®) (p = 0.0016). In conclusion, by using cOFM it was possible to show that 2B3-101 leads to enhanced doxorubicin concentration in the brain without affecting the BBB integrity.

Keywords: 2B3-101; CNS; Caelyx®; Doxil®; blood brain barrier; cancer; cerebral open flow microperfusion; doxorubicin; drug targeting; liposomes.

DOI: 10.1002/jps.23994




Cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM) is a new in-vivo technique for continuous sampling of the interstitial fluid in brain tissue. cOFM can be used to monitor substance transport across the blood-brain barrier (pharmacokinetics) and to investigate metabolic changes in brain tissue after drug application (pharmacodynamics). The possibility of long-term implantation into the brain makes cOFM an outstanding tool in the development of brain relevant pharmaceutics.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ddtec.2016.07.003




2H2O as nonradioactive, stable marker substance is commonly used in preclinical and clinical studies and the precise determination of 2H2O concentration in biological samples is crucial. However, aside from isotope ratio mass spectrometry(IRMS), only a very limited number of methods to accurately measure the 2H2O concentration in biological samples are routinely established until now.

In this study, we present a straightforward method to accurately measure 2H-enrichment of rat brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and rat plasma to determine the relative recovery of a cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM) probe, using headspace-gas-chromatography – quadrupole-mass-spectrometry. This method is based on basic-catalyzed hydrogen/deuterium exchange in acetone and detects the 2H-labelled acetone directly by the headspace GC-MS. Small sample volumes and limited number of preparation steps make this method highly competitive. It has been fully validated. 2H enriched to 8800 ppm in plasma showed an accuracy of 98.9% and %Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 3.1 with n = 18 over three days and with two operators. Similar performance was obtained for cerebral ISF enriched to 1100 ppm (accuracy: 96.5%, %RSD: 3.1). With this highly reproducible method we demonstrated the successful employment of 2H2O as performance marker for a cOFM probe.



Objective: The inability of leptin to suppress food intake in diet-induced obesity, sometimes referred to as leptin resistance, is associated with several distinct pathological hallmarks. One prevailing theory is that impaired transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a molecular mechanism that triggers this phenomenon. Recent evidence, however, has challenged this notion, suggesting that leptin BBB transport is acquired during leptin resistance.

Methods: To resolve this debate, we utilized a novel cerebral Open Flow Microperfusion (cOFM) method to examine leptin BBB transport in male C57BL/6J mice, fed a chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 20 days.

Results: Basal plasma leptin levels were 3.8-fold higher in HFD-fed mice (p < 0.05). Leptin administration (2.5 mg/kg) elicited similar pharmacokinetic profiles of circulating leptin. However, while leptin reduced food intake by 20% over 22 h in chow-fed mice, it did not affect food intake in HFD-fed mice. In spite of this striking functional difference, hypothalamic leptin levels, as measured by cOFM, did not differ between chow-fed mice and HFD-fed mice following leptin administration.

Conclusions: These data suggest that leptin transport across the BBB is not impaired in non-obese leptin resistant mice and thus unlikely to play a direct role in the progression of pharmacological leptin resistance.

Keywords: Blood–brain barrier; Hypothalamus; Leptin; Leptin resistance; Leptin transport; Obesity.


DOI: 10.1016/j.molmet.2018.04.008




Drugs for neurological diseases have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to induce their therapeutic effect. In vivo drug quantification in the brain is challenging, because invasive methods damage the BBB and measurement results may be confounded by drug leakage from the blood into the brain through the disrupted BBB. Cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM) is an in vivo sampling technique that allows BBB healing and re-establishment after probe implantation and before sampling is performed. It therefore provides the opportunity to sample compounds in cerebral interstitial fluid with an intact BBB. This article comprehensively describes the experimental setup and procedures, perfusate requirements, critical parameters, common problems that may occur, and their causes and solutions. Typical results from a cOFM sampling experiment are presented and discussed. This protocol provides a tool for performing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in mouse or rat brain with an intact BBB. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


DOI: 10.1002/cpph.60



cOFM Publications

Aims: To find an explanation for the lower potency of insulin detemir observed in humans compared with unmodified human insulin by investigating insulin detemir and human insulin concentrations directly at the level of peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues in humans in vivo.

Methods: Euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp experiments were performed in healthy volunteers. Human insulin was administered i.v. at 6 pmol/kg/min and insulin detemir at 60 pmol/kg/min, achieving a comparable steady-state pharmacodynamic action. In addition, insulin detemir was doubled to 120 pmol/kg/min. Minimally invasive open-flow microperfusion (OFM) sampling methodology was combined with inulin calibration to quantify human insulin and insulin detemir in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissue.

Results: The human insulin concentration in the ISF was ∼115 pmol/l or ∼30% of the serum concentration, whereas the insulin detemir concentration in the ISF was ∼680 pmol/l or ∼2% of the serum concentration. The molar insulin detemir interstitial concentration was five to six times higher than the human insulin interstitial concentration and metabolic clearance of insulin detemir from serum was substantially reduced compared with human insulin.

Conclusions: OFM proved useful for target tissue measurements of human insulin and the analogue insulin detemir. Our tissue data confirm a highly effective retention of insulin detemir in the vascular compartment. The higher insulin detemir relative to human insulin tissue concentrations at comparable pharmacodynamics, however, indicate that the lower potency of insulin detemir in humans is attributable to a reduced effect in peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues and is consistent with the reduced in vitro receptor affinity.

Keywords: adipose tissue; clinical trial; insulin analogues; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics.

DOI: 10.1111/dom.12551



Aims: To compare the time profile of insulin detemir and human insulin concentrations in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue during constant i.v. infusion and to investigate the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of both insulin molecules in plasma and the ISF of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Methods: During a 6-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (plasma glucose level 8 mmol/l) human insulin (21 and 42 pmol/min/kg) or insulin detemir (209 and 417 pmol/min/kg) were infused i.v. in eight rats per dose level. Open flow microperfusion (OFM) was used to continuously assess interstitial insulin concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Results: At the lower infusion rate, insulin detemir appeared significantly later in the ISF than in the plasma (p < 0.05) and also appeared later in the ISF relative to human insulin (p < 0.005).

Conclusions: By using OFM we were able to monitor albumin-bound insulin detemir directly in the ISF of subcutaneous tissue and confirm its delayed transendothelial passage to a peripheral site of action.

Keywords: adipose tissue; animal pharmacology; dose-response relationships; insulin analogues; pharmacokinetics.

DOI: 10.1111/dom.12394

Background: Restoration of the physiologic hepatic-to-peripheral insulin gradient may be achieved by either portal vein administration or altering insulin structure to increase hepatic specificity or restrict peripheral access. Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) is a novel, PEGylated basal insulin with a flat pharmacokinetic and glucodynamic profile and altered hepatic-to-peripheral action gradient. We hypothesized reduced BIL exposure in peripheral tissues explains the latter, and in this study assessed the adipose tissue interstitial fluid (ISF) concentrations of BIL compared with human insulin (HI).

Methods: A euglycemic glucose clamp was performed in patients with type 1 diabetes during continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of BIL or HI, while the adipose ISF insulin concentrations were determined using open-flow microperfusion (OFM). The ratio of adipose ISF-to-serum concentrations and the absolute steady-state adipose ISF concentrations were assessed using a dynamic no-net-flux technique with subsequent regression analysis.

Results: Steady-state BIL concentrations in adipose tissue ISF were achieved by ∼16 h after IV infusion. Median time to reach steady-state glucose infusion rate across doses ranged between 8 and 22 h. The average serum concentrations (coefficient of variation %) of BIL and HI were 11,200 pmol/L (23%) and 425 pmol/L (15%), respectively. The ISF-to-serum concentration ratios were 10.2% for BIL and 22.9% for HI.

Conclusions: This study indicates feasibility of OFM to measure BIL in ISF. The observed low ISF-to-serum concentration ratio of BIL is consistent with its previously demonstrated reduced peripheral action.

Keywords: Dynamic no-net-flux technique; Euglycemic glucose clamp; Insulin analogues; Open-flow microperfusion; Peripheral tissue concentration.

DOI: 10.1089/dia.2016.0384


Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is a widely used treatment for diabetes patients. Insulin infusion sets (CSII-catheters) are continuously optimized regarding size, handling and safety, but recurring dysfunction (kinking or occlusion), due to different user situations, behavior or chain of events, demand new ways to improve the functionality and safety in patients experiencing these issues. A novel CSII-catheter design (Lantern) features additional lateral perforations, which guarantee functionality even in case of kinking or occlusion. This study aimed to compare functionality, insulin distribution, and failure rate of Lantern and standard catheters using excised human adipose tissue samples. Novel Lantern CSII-catheters (open and artificially occluded) and commercially available standard CSII-catheters were inserted into adipose tissue samples. A mixture of insulin and contrast agent was infused as single bolus (7 IU) with an insulin infusion pump at highest flow rate (1 IU/s). Microtomography images and surface-to-volume ratios were used to assess insulin distribution and depot volume indicating the functionality of CSII-catheters. Failure rate was measured by flow-stop alerts of the pump. We found no difference in the volume of insulin depots compared with the nominal volume of 70 μL. Surface-to-volume ratios showed no significant difference among CSII-catheters. None of the catheters triggered any flow-stop alarm. The novel Lantern CSII-catheter design achieved similar insulin distribution as commercially available CSII-catheters. Moreover, functionality of Lantern CSII-catheters was guaranteed during occlusion, which is an improvement compared with standard CSII-catheters. We conclude that the novel CSII-catheter design has the potential to provide a valuable contribution to patient well-being and safety.

Keywords: Insulin distribution; Insulin infusion catheter; Insulin infusion therapy; Lantern; Microtomography.


DOI: 10.1089/dia.2019.0195