Dermal OFM

Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and bioequivalence studies in the dermis

We investigate the transport and effects of APIs/drugs in the dermis after local, topical or systemic application in the dermis – in-vivo and ex-vivo. We perform tissue-specific preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) studies of APIs/drugs.

We also investigate bioavailability/bioequivalence and perform metabolomic studies in-vivo and ex-vivo. For these investigations, we use our patented technique - open flow microperfusion (OFM) - as well as conventional microdialysis.

Learn more about our specialised sevices for dermal active phamaceutical ingredients (APIs) and dermal drugs.


Schematic figure of the OFM system with a linear membrane-free OFM probe.
The OFM pump simultaneously pushes the perfusate into the OFM probe and pulls the OFM sample into an easily exchangeable vial.
At the exchange area, substances are freely exchanged between the ISF and the perfusate.

Dermal ISF sampling without limitations

  • OFM is a probe based method.
  • A linear membrane-free OFM probe is inserted into the skin and lies right beneath the dermis.
  • The OFM probe is continuously perfused.
  • At the exchange area (sampling mesh) substances are freely exchanged between the ISF and the perfusate.


  • Direct contact with the dermal interstitial fluid compartement (ISF)
  • Continuous ISF collection in-vivo
  • No limitation in size: from single molecules to antibodies
  • No limitation regarding lipophilicity
  • Simultaneous analysis of multiple substances (e. g. biomarkers)

Download the current folder on our dermal PK/PD services here.